Conceptual Underpinnings & Working Definitions
The concept of Human Security derives from the basic shift in the referent object of global and national security policy planning and implementation, from territorial(state) security to a people centered approach. A focus on people as the subject of protection, empowerment, well-being and social cohesion for sustainable participatory human development and a life in dignity
Rejection of generally accepted societal beliefs, norms, way of life/legal framework in preference to an alternative.
Justification, Support, Threat or use of violence to achieve an Extremist goal. (Normally Political, Socio-economic, Religious or Ideological).
Legally, terrorism is a controversial, pejorative terminology often used to represent the use of force that is considered as illegitimate. Terrorism needs to be defined at law whether internationally or domestically to have any law enforcement relevance. There is no globally accepted definition for terrorism. UNSCR 1373 (2001) requires each UN Member State to define terrorism in their domestic legislation. The UN however designates a number of violent extremist groups as terrorist organisations.
HSRCGh categorizes terrorism as a tactic rather than an ideology or philosophy. Different violent extremist groups do employ terrorist tactics to achieve various objectives, whether political, insurgent, religious, socio-economic or ideological. Terrorism as a tactic is characterized by the use of violence, fear, intimidation, and the threat and/or use of harm and death, rather than peaceful means to seek change. It derives from a philosophy of ‘Good’ Ends justify any Means to achieve goals.
“Institutions are persistent and connected sets of rules (formal and informal) that prescribe behavioral roles, constrain activities and shape expectations.”
(Robert Keohane 1989)